The World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johensburg has agreed to significantly advance the attention given to energy in the context of sustainable development. There is a strong relationship between energy and the economy including environmental protection, social and health issues, women’s empowerment and poverty alleviation. For economic growth and development of human resource activities, access to affordable service is prerequisites. Without access to energy the opportunity for economic growth and improving living standards are constrained. Still more than 2 billons of people are living without modern type of energy services based on efficient use of electricity and gaseous and liquid fuels. Wide disparities in access to modern energy services both in urban and rural areas finally threaten social stability. Therefore decentralized and small scale energy technology is necessary to overcome the present constraints for successful poverty alleviation.
High level of pollution resulting form different types of energy uses both in residential and commercial sector threatens the human health. Emission of anthropogenic green house gases mostly from the burning of fossil fuel cause the global atmosphere warmer which ultimately leads towards significant climate change. Although the contribution of green house emission from developed and fast growing industrialized countries is significantly high enough in global or regional level, the subsequences of the climate change pose high risk in poor and developing countries.
Many countries have to pay biggest part of their export incomes for fuel imports. The weight of fossil fuel imports on the balance of payment is unbearable for many poor countries.
Today it is urgent to find the ways to expand the quality and quantity of energy services while simultaneously addressing the environmental impacts associated with the use of those energy services. Options for using energy in ways that support sustainable developments include efficient use of existing energy use in building, transportation and production process. Another way of sustainable harnessing of energy source is increasing in reliance on renewable energy source particularly maximum exploitation of solar, wind , hydro and biomass .For sustainable development of future of renewable energy market , it should be addressed simultaneously with other development objectives using available resources and technical options. A sustainable future in which energy plays a major positive role in supplying human well being is possible.
Most of the least developed countries are characterized with the low consumption of energy. The per capita energy consumption in Nepal is around 14 GJ, which is one of the lowest in the world. Providing people with adequate energy is not an easy task. Every aspect of energy production and consumption should be taken into consideration while preparing for sustainable development. In this, His Majesty’s Government of Nepal in its recent publication on Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal (SDAN) has also specifically stated on the use of indigenous energy to meet the local sustainable development goals which are in tandem with the Millennium Development Goals. The document focuses on accepting the prevailing poverty of the country on all fronts but at the same time acknowledges Nepal’s status as a country with varied diversity with tremendous future potential to meet the set goals. The goals thus set are not merely the projection of the present trends but encompasses ambitious objectives. The proper harnessing and implications of the indigenous diverse energy potential will play a crucial role to meet these goals and objectives.
The core problem of environmental degradation, diminishing natural recourses and increasing poverty requires new technologies and new organizational structures and management strategies. By using renewable energy systems together with the changing of attitudes, social mobilization and transformation of knowledge, sustainable social and economic development can be achieved. Further, the role of each and every institution, professionals working in the field of energy is vital towards generating appropriate energy for the much sought after sustainable development in Nepal.